–Arts and letters for the modern age–

Cathode Ray Zone

–Arts and Letters for the Modern Age–

Philosophical Questions and their Answers

by | Oct 13, 2023

Surveys suggest that most professional philosophers think that the aim of philosophy is to arrive at true positions on subjects ranging from Morality to Knowledge, Reality, Mind, and the like. They think there are determinate answers as to whether moral realism or anti-realism is true or whether the Internalists or Externalists get knowledge right or whether [or how] we retain our personal identity over time.

Those who are familiar with my work will know that I have raised questions about this, but who am I to stand against this consensus among my distinguished colleagues? So, here are the correct answers to all of philosophy’s most fundamental questions.

[1] Why is there something rather than nothing?

Why not? Is there a reason there shouldn’t be something?

[2] Where do words get their meanings?

From people.

[3] Are meanings “in the head”?


[4] What determines the reference of a term or expression?

Talking and pointing.

[5] What does “‘Snow is white’ is true” mean?

It means that snow is white.

[6] Does God exist?

Of course not. Have you looked around?

[7] What are the foundations of morality?

People care about things a lot.

[8] What are the foundations of value?

People like and dislike things a lot.

[9] What is the ground of being?

Being isn’t a thing and doesn’t have grounds.

[10] What is the supreme principle of morality?

There isn’t one.

[11] What is the standard of beauty?

There isn’t one.

[12] How can we reconcile the subjectivity and normativity of taste?

We can’t. The fact that we’d like others to like the same things that we do doesn’t make our likes normative.

[13] Are values “mind-independent”?

No. Just imagine that there never were any people.

[14] Is reality “mind-independent”?

Minds are part of reality. What else would they be a part of?

[15] What justifies our beliefs?

Many different things, depending on the context. 

[16] What are persons?

Friends; family; neighbors; compatriots; etc.

[17] What is the standard of personal identity?

It depends on the context.

[18] What is the nature of mind and body?

Ask the psychologists, neuroscientists, physiologists, anatomists, etc. What would philosophers know about it?

[19] Is there Free Will?

There’s no “will,” so it can’t be free.

[20] What makes agency possible?

People do things for reasons.

[21] What is the best system of government?

Liberal democracy.

[22] What is Justice?

Sometimes it’s fairness. Sometimes it’s desert. Sometimes it’s something else. It depends.

[23] How do we know we aren’t brains-in-vats?

The same way that we know we aren’t goats.

[24] What does human flourishing consist of?

It depends on the human.

[25] Is there purpose in nature?

Yes, among those things that can form intentions.

[26] Do we survive death?

No. Death is what happens when we don’t survive.

[27] Could there be philosophical zombies?

What on earth are you talking about?

[28] Is it immoral to eat a ham and cheese sandwich?

Of course not. 

[29] What is “first philosophy”?

There is no “first philosophy.”

[30] Is the unexamined life worth living?

Whether a life is worth living is determined by the person living it, so it depends.